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With the number of deaths due to stroke decreasing, more individuals are forced to live with crippling disability resulting from the stroke. To date, no therapeutics exist after the first 4.5 h after the stroke onset, aside from rest and physical therapy. Following stroke, a large influx of astrocytes and microglia releasing proinflammatory cytokines leads to dramatic inflammation and glial scar formation, affecting brain tissue’s ability to repair itself. Pathological conditions, such as a stroke, trigger neural progenitor cells (NPCs) proliferation and migration toward the damaged site. However, these progenitors are often found far from the cavity or the peri-infarct tissue. Poststroke tissue remodeling results in a compartmentalized cavity that can directly accept a therapeutic material injection. Here, this paper shows that the injection of a porous hyaluronic acid hydrogel into the stroke cavity significantly reduces the inflammatory response following stroke while increasing peri-infarct vascularization compared to nonporous hydrogel controls and stroke only controls. In addition, it is shown that the injection of this material impacts NPCs proliferation and migration at the subventricular zone niche and results, for the first time, in NPC migration into the stroke site.

Lina R Nih, Elias Sideris, S Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura

Nih, LR; Sideris, E; Carmichael, ST; Segura, T